What You'll Learn


Understand the internal architecture of PLCs, their applications, and knowledge of the number systems they use.


Understand the typical input and output devices used with PLCs, their selection, and how they are interfaced to the PLC.


Investigate and understand the basic programming techniques used with PLCs.


Produce a correctly developed program for a PLC to control a specified process, and document the completed program to a satisfactory standard.


Understand how to Monitor PLC Operation, Force Devices, and Fault Find PLC Controlled Processes.


Understand how to configure, connect and design basic HMI (Human Machine Interface) applications.

Qualification Code
Earn a nationally recognised qualification at Level 3 in PLCs on the National Qualifications Framework (NQF), 601/5326/X - View Regulated Qualifications Framework (RQF)

Course Information
By learning with Scantime, you are learning from Engineers who are actively working in the Automation industry today. We've helped provide EAL Recognised and City & Guilds Assured PLC, HMI and Networking training to engineers worldwide from Amazon, EDF Energy, Jaguar Land Rover, Unipres, Arrival and more.

To ensure you gain the most out of your PLC training, we believe it's best to focus on one PLC manufacturer rather than several especially for those who are new to PLCs which is why during your course, we will be providing training on the Siemens S7 PLCs and HMIs using TIA Portal and STEP7 Professional software packages.

PLC training courses focussing on Allen Bradley, Omron, Mitsubishi, Schneider or other PLCs and HMIs can be made available upon request.

Our EAL Award in Programmable Logic Controllers Level 3 enables you to acquire the essential knowledge needed to understand the hardware and software concepts of programmable logic controllers (PLCs), their applications in the control of manufacturing and other processes and how PLCs may be programmed.

This PLC training course involves the internal architecture of PLCs, their applications, and knowledge of the number systems they use, the typical input and output devices used with PLCs, their Selection, and how they are interfaced to the PLC, the basic programming techniques used with PLCs. This unit also involves developing a program for a PLC to control a specified process, and document the completed program to a satisfactory standard and monitoring PLC operation, force devices, and troubleshoot PLC controlled processes.

1-Year eLearning Access
We understand that once you leave a training course, it may be difficult to follow-up and continuously develop your new skill-set, which is why we are happy to help refresh your training in your own time, whenever you want.

Once you have completed our EAL Level 3 Award in PLCs, you will receive access to our Siemens TIA Portal and Siemens STEP7 Professional eLearning training courses (Available for up to 1 year), this will allow you to practice what you have been taught on our training course from home or work ensuring your training investment isn't wasted.

What Topics are Covered?
Background to the PLC
PLCs in Industry and where they are used
Understanding what PACs are and the differences between a PAC and a PLC
Understanding PLC Numbering Systems and converting between them (Binary, Decimal, Hexadecimal)
Understanding the Siemens PLC Range
Understanding the differences between Modular, Compact and Rack-based PLCs
How to select a model of PLC for a control system
How to use the Siemens website and locate important areas
Understanding what a Siemens PSU is
Understanding the Siemens CPU and its features
Understanding the Siemens CPU LED indication and error displays
Understanding how to use the CPU Mode Selector
What is a PLC Battery and why is it important
Understanding the Siemens Digital Input and Output Cards
The importance of the Siemens Part Numbers
Understanding the Siemens SD Memory Cards
Types of Input Sensors
How to wire the Siemens PSU, CPU and Input/Output Cards
Understanding the differences between NPN and PNP wiring
Understanding how Modular PLCs are constructed and expanded
Increasing process control via Networking
Understanding basic PLC components
Understanding the differences between Steps, Rungs and Networks
Understanding Logic terminology (AND, OR, ANDN, ORN, EOR)
Understanding the Siemens PLC hardware addressing
Program documentation
Interfacing Safety to a PLC
PLC architecture
The importance of the PLC Scan and how it can be increased
Calculating PLC Scan Times
Understanding interrupts and background routines
How the PLC works with negative values and 2's complement
Understanding Analogue values and how they are inputted to the PLC
How to convert Analogue signalling from Raw to Engineering and Engineering to Raw
Understanding MRES and the dangers
Understanding the unique Siemens Memory Area and how to manage it correctly
IO Module Response Time
Understanding the Siemens PLC internal addressing
Understanding what PC/Laptop Operating System you should use for STEP7 Professional/TIA Portal
Understanding the STEP7 Professional/TIA Portal environment
Creating your first project
Setting up communications between your Laptop and PC
Setting up Hardware Configuration and why its important
How to download safely to the PLC without accidentally shutting down production
Using STEP7 Professional/TIA Portal to create your first programming routines
Labelling your project with Symbols and Comments and the benefits of doing so
Understanding Online Editing and the dangers
Understanding the differences between Control Latches and Alarm Latches and their important signals
Understanding the dangers of duplication
Using STEP7 Professional/TIA Portal to create Timer delay routines using the variations of Siemens Timers available
Understanding the differences between PLC programming languages and the positives and negatives of each
Understanding the IEC 61131-3 Programming Standards and why we adhere to these standards
Undertaking an Upload and how to do so correctly
How to Archive and Retrieve a project
Drafting program operations
Understanding Siemens Counters and what we can use them for
How to use programming instructions to monitor system equipment for maintenance
How to select a sensor for a project
Understanding the PLC electrical schematics and IO schedules and why we use these when commissioning and installing programs
PLC addressing between different manufacturers and how it works with the IEC 61131-3 Standard
Understanding data handling with the Move instruction
Understanding the common Bit Logic instructions in the Siemens catalog
How to use the One Shot Pulse (Rising and Falling) instructions correctly inside of the Siemens PLC
Using Comparators to monitor process safety limits
Using Set and Reset inside of the PLC and why it can be dangerous when used incorrectly
Understanding SIL levels when working with a control system
Understanding how to work with E-Stops and Safety Circuits and implement these inside of your program
Understanding the differences between standard PLCs and safety PLCs
Understanding the use of clock memory of the Siemens PLC
Understanding how programs are developed
Using Siemens Cross-References to navigate through your program when fault finding
Using the Siemens Assignment List to locate free addressing inside of the Siemens PLC
Using verification to ensure accurate backups are available
Understanding the affects that Modifying and Forcing I/O has on the PLC
Understanding the dangers of Forcing Inputs and Outputs in your program
Using VAT Tables/Watch Tables to monitor your programs more effectively
How to create Alarms inside of the PLC and how to manage these within your program
Using Safety Interlocking to help increase the integrity of your programs
How programs are structured into Blocks
Understanding the differences between Functions and Function Blocks
An in-depth look at Statement List
HMI Programming and Modifications
HMI Hardware and Communications
HMI Setup and Configuration
Backing-up and Restoring HMIs
Creating an HMI Project
Working with HMI Templates
Making Modifications to an Existing HMI Project
Using HMI Tags
HMI Tag Poling
Screens, Navigation and Object Programming
IO Fields and Bar Graphs
Creating and Modifying Trends
Alarms, Classes and Buffers
Adding Alarms into a PLC Project to Display on an HMI
Setting-up HMI Security

This Course Includes:

  • Next Available Date: January 6th 2025
  • tick icon Nationally recognised EAL qualification at Level 3 in PLCs (601/5326/X)
  • world icon EAL Assessments
  • mouse arrow icon Access to Siemens TIA Portal/STEP7 Professional and PLCs/HMIs
  • headset icon Face-to-Face Tuition from Engineers
  • tick icon Scantime Essentials Training Manual
  • computer screen icon 1-Year Access to our Siemens eLearning Courses for Continuous Development

Course Features

EAL Level 3 Award in PLCs (601/5326/X)

EAL Centre Code: C001368 - We are approved as an officially recognised EAL Training Centre to provide recognised PLC training courses. EAL is the specialist awarding organisation for the engineering, manufacturing and professional trades sectors.

ELC Approved Training

ELCAS Learner Provider ID: 12508 - View Course via ELCAS - The MOD's Enhanced Learning Credits Scheme (ELC) promotes lifelong learning amongst members of the Armed Forces. The scheme provides financial support in each of a maximum of three separate financial years for higher level learning of a nationally recognised qualification at Level three or above or, if pursued overseas, an approved international equivalent qualification with an approved learning provider.

Access to Live Siemens PLCs, HMIs and Programming Software

Connect and work with our Live Siemens PLC and HMI control systems via Siemens TIA Portal and STEP7 Professionall in classrooms that are dedicated to help you gain unrivalled hands-on experience.

Face-to-Face Tuition from Engineers

We believe to run an engaging and effective PLC training course that relates to those attending, tutors need to have current real-world experience in working with live PLCs, which is why throughout your training, you'll be learning from our PLC experts who are are actively working in industry with our Automation department. This ensures you are learning best-practice PLC maintenance and troubleshooting methods/techniques which are up-to-date and are currently used on shop-floors by Engineers, today.

Scantime Essentials Training Manual

During your training, you'll have access to your own Scantime Training Manual. Each training manual includes interactive elements which are designed to help you stay engaged. These training manuals will be yours to take home, allowing you to refresh your new skill-set once you have completed our PLC training course.

1-Year eLearning Access

We understand that once you leave a training course, it may be difficult to follow-up and continuously develop your new skill-set, which is why upon completion of our EAL Level 3 Award in PLCs, you'll receive 1-year access to our Siemens TIA Portal and Siemens STEP7 Professional eLearning training courses, allowing you to practice what you've been taught on our training course from home or work ensuring your training investment isn't wasted.


Earn a nationally recognised qualification at Level 3 in Siemens PLCs on the National Qualifications Framework (NQF), to achieve certification, candidates must be able to:

Demonstrate an understanding of the internal architecture of PLCs, their applications & knowledge of the number systems they use.

Demonstrate an understanding of typical input & output devices used with PLCs, their selection & how they are Interfaced to the PLC.

Investigate & display an understanding of the basic programming techniques used with PLCs.

Produce a correctly developed program for a PLC to control a specified process & document the completed program to a satisfactory standard.

Demonstrate an understanding of how to monitor PLC operation, force devices & fault find PLC controlled processes.

Frequently Asked Questions

Can I use my Enhanced Learning Credits (ELC) for this training course?
Yes, as we are an ELCAS Learner Provider (12508), this training course can be used in conjuction with your Enhanced Learning Credits.
How can I apply for this training course via ELCAS?
Step 1 - The first step is to contact us to select a date for your training to take place, we'll then discuss with you which PLC would be best to learn on depending upon your industry goals. Once you have been given the authority to proceed by your training/resettlement officer, you will be able to book your course with ourselves. Step 2 - Your Credit Authorisation Note will then be sent to your resettlement Officer, please e-mail this to ourselves and bring the original with you on your first training day. The Credit Authorisation Note shows your contribution and also the ELCAS contribution. Once we receive your contribution we will then send out your course confirmation and joining instructions via email, this will also include our fixed special rate with the Marriott hotel should you require accommodation during your training. The invoice for the ELCAS contribution is then raised and sent to MoD finance department. Step 3 - Now we're ready to begin your PLC training! Once you’ve completed your PLC training with us, we’ll complete & sign your 1748 CWA/CTA confirmation and claim form, please note that this can only be signed on your last day of training. If you have successfully completed the PLC training, you will receive their course certificates in the post via recorded delivery.
Do I need experience to join this course?
No previous experience or knowledge is required before attending our EAL Award in Programmable Logic Controllers Level 3 training course however, an understanding of electrical principles is useful.
What is the duration of the PLC training course?
This training course is 10 days in duration with a Guided Learning Hours (GLH) of 75 hours.
Can I learn more than one PLC software package during the PLC training course?
During our EAL Award in Programmable Logic Controllers Level 3 training, we'll focus on one PLC software package depending upon which you prefer. We highly advise against learning multiple PLC software packages during one training course as that can cause a lot of confusion and will restrict how much you can learn during your training.
Will I receive certification upon completion?
Yes, upon successful completion of this training course, you will received a Level 3 Award in Programmable Logic Controllers. The Award code is 601/5326/X.
Will I be working with a Live PLC?
Yes, the best way to learn is to learn with the real equipment. During our training courses, you will be connecting to live Siemens PLCs and HMIs while using real software such as: TIA Portal and STEP7 Professional. You will then be able to work with these PLCs in similar scenarios that you would experience on the shop-floor.
Can I attend as an individual?
Yes, these courses are available to anyone willing to learn, whether that is through a company or as an individual.
What is the maximum number of trainees per training course?
As this PLC training course is more focussed on being an introductory PLC training course, we are able to extend our usual class size to a maximum of 8 trainees per course, allowing each learner to ask their own questions and to feel comfortable in the classroom without being over-shadowed by others.

Customer Reviews

Mohan DharmalingamMohan Dharmalingam
17:06 22 Feb 24
Fantastic opportunity for freshers to PLC. Friendly tutors and great support was given throughout the course. I strongly recommend Scantime Automation to anyone who wish to progress in their career.
Stephen GreenfieldStephen Greenfield
15:09 22 Feb 24
Really helpful and enthusiastic team. In depth and practical knowledge of PLCs. Will definitely be coming back.
Jay CampbellJay Campbell
15:01 15 Feb 24
Great training and friendly staff
Pete RodwellPete Rodwell
13:18 15 Feb 24
Great course. suitable for anyone regardless of past programming experience. Chris presents the course in an interesting and easy going way. would highly recommend.
sajan varghese samuelsajan varghese samuel
20:02 12 Feb 24
Completed EAL level 1&2 Siemens PLC course at this institution. Course content is taught by experienced professionals. Highly recommend for this course.
graham wallacegraham wallace
14:40 08 Feb 24
Completed Siemens TIA training. Enjoyable course. Good content and delivered well by course trainer, Alan.
Christopher LindridgeChristopher Lindridge
15:32 26 Jan 24
Excellent facility and the delivery staff are competent, experienced trainers with a vast range of industrial knowledge. Having the opportunity to be hands-on with the PLC systems alongside the top class delivery makes a difference as you can learn at your own pace.Up to date resources, learning logbooks and equipment all add to the quality of the programme.Definitely reccomended to anyone looking to expand their knowledge and understanding of PLC automation.Many thanks to Chris, Dave and the Scantime team.
Mark HornerMark Horner
20:58 19 Jan 24
My colleagues and I of Essity UK wish to share our gratitude for the skills and knowledge we have gained, and continue to gain as we upskill in Siemens Step 7 and TIA Portal. Many thanks to Alan, Chris, Dave and David.
James SherryJames Sherry
14:51 18 Jan 24
Great experience great teacher (alan) I was new to plc and now I feel like I know alot and I'm ready to get started. Definitely reccomend
Mason SMason S
14:19 14 Dec 23
Good experience. Knowledgable tutor. Gives a good understanding of maintaining and fault finding the PLC
scott loganscott logan
22:16 16 Nov 23
Completed the EAL Siemens PLC Industrial Maintenance & Fault Finding Pro (IMFFP®) 1&2 course at Scantime In Newcastle this week. Excellent training course delivered by Alan who is very experienced and knowledgeable engineer with years of industry experience. Enjoyed every minute and feel very confident to maintain and fault find on Siemens PLC’s back in the workplace.
Aaron LayfieldAaron Layfield
17:05 16 Nov 23
Just finished a EAL level 1&2 Siemens PLC course. Course content is great delivered by true professionals with real industry knowledge. Definitely recommend to all engineers.
Andy MatherAndy Mather
15:53 16 Nov 23
Really enjoyed the course. Trainer was very knowledgeable and helpful. :)
Mark TaylorMark Taylor
14:44 16 Nov 23
Absolutely class! Would highly recommend to anyone of any ability level. First class!!
layton robinsonlayton robinson
14:11 14 Sep 23
Excellent step 7 training. Highly recommend this course to any aspiring automation engineer.
Andrew WallAndrew Wall
21:29 03 Mar 23
Fantastic 10 day course delivered by Dave and Chris Simm. Their years of experience and passion for their field really shows. Through the use of the latest hardware and software combined with an exceptionally well designed curriculum and classrooms, it makes for a great training environment. I would highly recommend Scantime to anybody wanting to learn more about PLC’s. Will hopefully be returning in the future for further training.
Mic TheDaddyMic TheDaddy
12:20 26 Jan 23
Chris did a great job, was very knowledgeable, and explained everything clearly. The course was a great way to gain a greater understanding of plcs and how we use them
Oliver ParkerOliver Parker
12:17 26 Jan 23
Excellent course, really well run and structured. Little to no fluff, and the booklets provided are really informative and easy to navigate. Our instructor Chris is obviously very knowledgeable about the subject. He was able to relate our learning to our environment really well. Overall a very positive learning experience
Andrew WilliamsAndrew Williams
14:01 06 Oct 22
Chris was our instructor for the week. Very knowledgeable with vast experience in many different industries. Would highly recommend that anyone who wants to learn PLC's the correct way. Contact these guys
Philip WhitePhilip White
13:51 06 Oct 22
Very experienced instructors with a wealth of knowledge. Comfortable learning environment. I very much enjoyed the course, highly recommended especially if you have limited or no experience in PLCs.
David McAfeeDavid McAfee
13:26 06 Oct 22
Step 7 lvl 1&2 course has great content. Really helpful for understanding step 7 basic capabilities with some expansion into more complex features. Good step to progressing a career in PLC controlled industry. Training complex is well situated with good amenities and a cafe. Course instructors have a wealth of knowledge and also have a laugh.Hope to return for further courses and would highly recommend for newcomers to the PLC world.
Scott StephenScott Stephen
13:36 29 Sep 22
Really good course for Allen Bradly PLC. Will help further my career. Will be returning for the level 3 course. Highly recommend, Chris was a great lecturer and fully explained the course and gave real life examples of the code we were learning.
MechanicalMan 300MechanicalMan 300
13:15 23 Sep 22
Completed EAL Siemens TIA Portal IMFFP 1&2, absolutely brilliant course. Learnt so much. Really well delivered and great course notes.Lots of practical as well as theory.Classroom’s and kit really well setup.Definitely recommended.
Nicola ElliottNicola Elliott
13:50 25 Aug 22
Well paced and easy to follow. Good real world examples. Ideal for beginners and good refreshing for those that have experience already.
Craig UsherCraig Usher
15:30 11 Aug 22
Completed EAL Siemens training lead by Alan, David and Chris. Great learning materials and presentation. Felt well prepared for assesments.
Anton LapinskiAnton Lapinski
13:38 21 Jul 22
Really enjoyed training at Scantime. Chris has a wealth of knowledge across all PLCs old and new and is a great teacher. Hardware and software on the course is to a high standard and it was nice that everyone had their own PLC to program. The pace of the course was excellent and I can't wait to return for the next level. Thank you to all at Scantime for delivering such high quality training
darren beechingdarren beeching
13:10 12 Jul 22
A big thankyou to Chris and Co. at Scantime for an enjoyable week learning Siemens TIA. Excellent facilities, good atmosphere for learning and staff with great knowledge and experience of all things PLC. An easy recommendation for anyone interested in PLC training. I will also add that the online courses are another good source of learning, I've completed two so far and they have definitely been beneficial.
Mark McCluskeyMark McCluskey
14:31 08 Jul 22
Completed the Siemens TIA fault finding course, it was a breath of fresh air to do a course which was actually relevant to my job and had plenty practical techniques which I could easily implement to make fault finding easier at work. Each day was well paced, with a wide range of hardware available, learning material was well delivered with a mixture of practical hands on experience and very informative tutoring from lecturers who had a wealth of knowledge and were extremely helpful.
Rajan KandolaRajan Kandola
13:08 08 Jul 22
Did PLC Programming for Industry course. I am new to the industry so have no idea, this course was very helpful. It starts smalls and gradually builds up and in the process builds up your confidence as well. highly recommend
Chris BattyChris Batty
15:16 30 Jun 22
Just completed courses 1 and 2 with Scantime. Excellent delivery by the Engineers who have numerous years of experience across all industries and sectors. I'd already covered PLC's at University, but this was more useful in industry. They learn you how to use the vast array of tools within the PLC to quickly fault find, thereby reducing downtime. Would definitely recommend Scantime for any company looking to train up they're Technicians / Engineers. Looking forward to the level 3 course. Thanks to all at Scantime.
Dan HargreavesDan Hargreaves
13:30 23 Jun 22
Absolutely brilliant experience learning about PLC’s!The staff are friendly, superb and very knowledgeable. Their setup is awesome and the pricing is perfect for the quality of the content.Very very highly recommended for all companies who use automation or for people wanting to get into PLC’s and their connected devices!
Jordan HoweJordan Howe
13:40 16 Jun 22
Excellent training course delivered well by Chris. I feel like a PLC wizard now. Thanks a lot
Ryan BrownRyan Brown
14:06 09 Jun 22
Brilliant course. This course gave me a good foundation to work from in addition to the online courses they provide. I'll definitely be back for the level 3 course, to progress my PLC skills on the shop floor.
Krzychu GKrzychu G
10:46 29 Apr 22
Great courses with plenty of knowledge and information in terms of automation. All explained from basics so highly recommended to any one who’s willing to attend.
Michael GallagherMichael Gallagher
14:25 28 Apr 22
Brilliant course, well delivered. Lectures informative. Great environment.
Niall MccloskeyNiall Mccloskey
14:24 28 Apr 22
I’ve been in maintenance for a fair number of years now working with inputs and outputs in the field.This course is fantastic to give a deeper knowledge and understanding of the internal workings of plcs.I have gained the ability to understand step 7 from a completely different perspective and even the ability to fault find and diagnose faults and issues internally.I very much recommend scantime and this course to level up your skills as an maintenance engineer.Thank you Scantime!
Martin DallowMartin Dallow
13:20 28 Apr 22
Very enjoyable and informative training provided by Chris. Good facilities and mixture of theory and practical based training made the course easy to understand.
Josh SprattJosh Spratt
12:09 11 Apr 22
Used Scantime for training recently and would recommend to anyone wanting to learn automation engineering. Very Knowledgeable tutors and courses for everyone
Nicky LongNicky Long
10:18 02 Apr 22
Excellent training course. Fantastic course delivery and delivered at a pace that suited the team. Chris is very knowledgeable and has a broad knowledge of various systems and has carried out work in the real world so uses his experience to enhance the overall training experience. would highly recommend and hope to return to further my PLC knowledge.Many Thanks to the Scantime team.Nicky LongSenior RME TechAmazon
dan cornishdan cornish
17:13 26 Mar 22
Just completed City & Guilds Siemens TIA Portal Industrial Maintenance & Fault Finding Pro level 3. Another excellent course delivered from Dave and the lads from scantime. They have a wealth of knowledge and experience which they are passing onto new control engineers. fully recommend.
Adam McPartlandAdam McPartland
17:08 26 Mar 22
Great course! Found the structure easy to follow and I look forward to returning for further training.
Chris LeversChris Levers
16:26 26 Mar 22
Fantastic Training Company!I completed the level 2 Allen Bradley PLC maintenance and fault finding course in February 22. Chris and team were very professional and excellent at delivering the course material in a way anyone with any ability could understand well.Scantime have all the kit necessary to complete the training in a fun and interesting way!I will be returning for the level three course and to be fair cannot wait! Definitely five stars!Thanks againC LeversRME Tech Amazon EMA2
Allen BrownAllen Brown
14:42 17 Mar 22
Great course, David made understanding it very easy. A great teacher and great course all round.
kevin bellkevin bell
14:40 17 Mar 22
Excellent course, very well presented with friendly and engaging staff.Very knowledgeable and delivered brilliantly!
James PhillipsJames Phillips
14:22 17 Mar 22
Brilliant course and tutors. Thoroughly recommend them for their PLC training!
Adam GraneyAdam Graney
14:03 10 Mar 22
Great course with a very knowledgeable instructor - looking forward to the next course
Roger MolinerRoger Moliner
14:17 10 Dec 21
I took the Siemens Step 7 Professional Programming (Modules 1&2) e-learning course. In my opinion it is a great course to learn the Step 7 software basics in an easy and understandable way. You only will learn the most important aspects. I think once you finish the course you will be able to develop your skills by yourself.
Vee VardhanVee Vardhan
08:26 09 Dec 21
The course provided a really good insight to the Allen Bradley PLCs to me and my colleagues. It covered every tiny details relating to the PLCs. They also helped me with out of course questions I raised and made a lot of things clearer to me. I would recommend this training to others and will see the Scantime crew for further trainings.
Mahadi HasanMahadi Hasan
11:23 11 Nov 21
The content of the training was absolutely spot on for someone who just started to learn about Ladder Logic programming using Siemens TIA portal. The hands on experience to use TIA portal was really helpful for me. The course tutor spent a lot of time during my training to answer my questions, it felt like class room experience.
Daniel JohnstonDaniel Johnston
09:39 27 Sep 21
The course provided exactly what was expected and more! There was a significant amounts of information and details provided throughout and all questions where answered with consistency and clarity. I would highly recommend this facility for anyone seeking training/support with regards to PLC's, automation and process control.
George HaworthGeorge Haworth
15:44 09 Sep 21
Excellent course. The tutor was not only highly knowledgeable about the subject matter but also able to deliver complex ideas clearly, always relating back to first principles. I have taken many different courses over the years and this was by far one of the best.